Examples used in the book include critical analyses of the colonial literature of Joseph Conrad, which conflates a people, a time, and a place into one narrative of an incident and adventure in an exotic land. Themes. "Orientalism Summary". Summary: Introduction to Orientalism by Edward Said Edward Said opens his introduction to Orientalism by arguing that "The Orient was almost a European invention" … 2002. These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. :65–7, The notion of an Orient has played a central role in constructing European culture, and “helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experience.”:1–2 The binary relationship of strong-West-and-weak-East reinforces the cultural stereotypes invented with literary, cultural, and historical texts that are more fictitious than factual; yet, which give the reader of Orientalist texts (history, travelogue, anthropology, etc.) To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic knowledge about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact—and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism. Index of Terms. That the disparate examples, such as the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) who never travelled to the Orient; the French novelist Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880) who briefly toured Egypt; the French Orientalist Ernest Renan (1823–1892), whose anti-Semitism voided his work; and the British Arabist Edward William Lane (1801–1876), who compiled the Arabic–English Lexicon (1863–93)—did not constitute a comprehensive scope of investigation or critical comparison.  Anthropologist Talal Asad said that the book Orientalism is: not only a catalogue of Western prejudices about and misrepresentations of Arabs and Muslims" ... [but an investigation and analysis of the] authoritative structure of Orientalist discourse—the closed, self-evident, self-confirming character of that distinctive discourse, which is reproduced, again and again, through scholarly texts, travelogues, literary works of imagination, and the obiter dicta of public men-of-affairs. … I think that is too bad. Copyright © 1999 - 2021 GradeSaver LLC. The geopolitical reality of their actions, of military and economic warfare, voided the fictional nature of Orientalist representations, attitudes, and opinions about the non-Western Other self.. I remain in the safety of rhetorical analysis, where criticism is the second-best thing I do. Said argues that Orientalism, in the sense of the Western scholarship about the Eastern World, is inextricably tied to the imperialist societies who produced it, which makes much Orientalist work inherently political and servile to power. This detailed literature summary also contains Topics for Discussion on Orientalism by Edward Said. , Historian Gyan Prakash said that Orientalism describes how "the hallowed image of the Orientalist, as an austere figure, unconcerned with the world and immersed in the mystery of foreign scripts and languages, has acquired a dark hue as the murky business of ruling other peoples, now forms the essential and enabling background of his or her scholarship" about the Orient; without colonial imperialism, there would be no Orientalism. The West deliberately made the people from the East be viewed as irrational, overtly passionate and stereo typically seductive and exotic. 1993. The book presented his influential ideas on Orientalism, the Western study of Eastern cultures. Edward Said’s Orientalism ♦ Said’s Orientalism can be a critical tool to examine the validity of all the literature on the East written by the Westerners. and the why? Binary Opposition (Orient/Occident) Said … Orientalism Edward Said ... Download Save. Westernization and Colonialism as well as, Ferdinand Saussure and Edward Said: Discussing Language and Its Position in Our Lives. This was a particular issue given Said treated Western colonialism as unique, which Landlow regarded as unsatisfactory for a work of serious scholarship. , Such disproportional investigation provoked criticism from opponents and embarrassment for supporters of Said, who, in "Orientalism Reconsidered" (1985), said that no single opponent provided a rationale, by which limited coverage of German Orientalism limits either the scholarly value or the practical application of Orientalism as a cultural study. :347, In the article "Orientalism Now" (1995), historian Gyan Prakash says that Edward Said had explored fields of Orientalism already surveyed by his predecessors and contemporaries, such as V. G. Kiernan, Bernard S. Cohn, and Anwar Abdel Malek, who also had studied, reported, and interpreted the social relationship that makes the practice of imperialism intellectually, psychologically, and ethically feasible; that is, the relationship between European imperial rule and European representations of the non-European Other self, the colonised people. Their cultural identity has become fused with the fabricated... https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057%2F9781137543592_2. … (1999) Biswamoy Pati said that in making ethnicity and cultural background the tests of moral authority and intellectual objectivity in studying the Oriental world, Said drew attention to his personal identity as a Palestinian and as a subaltern of the British Empire, in the Near East.  As such, Orientalist stereotypes of the cultures of the Eastern world have served, and continue to serve, as implicit justifications for the colonial ambitions and the imperial endeavors of the U.S. and the European powers.  Likewise, in the preface paragraphs of a book-review article "Enough Said" (2007), about Dangerous Knowledge (2007), which is the American title for British-published For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies by Robert Irwin, Martin Kramer criticized what he said was the way Said's turned the term 'Orientalism' into a pejorative, saying "In a semantic sleight of hand, Said appropriated the term "Orientalism", as a label for the ideological prejudice he described, thereby, neatly implicating the scholars who called themselves Orientalists. He objected to Said's view that Western Orientalists were projecting upon the "artificial screen" called 'the East' or 'the Orient', but that such projection was only a small part of the relationship. We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own. , In the essay "The Debate About 'Orientalism'", Harry Oldmeadow saiys "that Said’s treatment of Orientalism, particularly the assertion of the necessary nexus with imperialism, is over-stated and unbalanced." The Oriental was basically the entire Asian continent. ", Ernest Gellner, in his book review titled "The Mightier Pen? An editor Perhaps the most common misunderstanding is that it is “about” the Middle East; on the contrary, it is a study of Western representations of the Arab-Islamic world—of what Said … They saw the Orient as the complete opposite of themselves. He grew up in Jerusalem and then Cairo, where the family …  Difficult because advances in the “electronic transfer of images” is increasing media concentration in the hands of powerful, transnational conglomerates. Identities Create Outsiders and Enemies  Moreover, the scope of Said's scholarship established Orientalism as a foundational text in the field of postcolonial studies, by denoting and examining the connotations of Orientalism, and the history of a given country's post-colonial period.. Orientalism played a significant role as the system used by colonial governments in the Orient to amass power, control millions of people and have autonomous control over the East. Orientalism, as traced back as far as three centuries ago, entailed the translation of Oriental materials to the dominant British language, English. and the why? , Orientalism concludes that "Western knowledge of the Eastern world," i.e. , In the sociological article, "Review: Who is Afraid of Edward Said?" Edward Said was born in 1935 in the British Mandate* of Palestine to a Palestinian mother and a Palestinian–American father. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007. Summary. Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward W. Said, in which the author establishes the eponymous term "Orientalism" as a critical concept to describe the West's common, contemptuous depiction and portrayal of "The East," i.e. Orientalism by Edward W. Said is a critique of the study of the Orient and its ideology. Orientalism by Edward Said is a canonical text of cultural studies in which he has challenged the concept of orientalism or the difference between east and west, as he puts it. You can help us out by revising, improving and updating Influenced by the imperialism … 1985. In Approaches to the History of the Middle East (1994), Keddie criticises Said's work on Orientalism, for the unfortunate consequences upon her profession as an historian: I think that there has been a tendency in the Middle East field to adopt the word "orientalism" as a generalized swear-word, essentially referring to people who take the "wrong" position on the Arab–Israeli dispute, or to people who are judged too "conservative". 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